The year 2020 will go down in history books as marking an unprecedented shift in human mobility. The COVID-19 pandemic decimated tourism and business travel; cut the lion’s share of seasonal and temporary labour migration; and halted or held up visa processing across all streams, from international students to family reunification. It is uncertain how, on what timeline and even whether these different forms of human movement will rebound to their pre-pandemic state.
Following a flurry of region- and country-specific travel bans in February 2020, once the virus started spreading more widely, countries began closing their borders like dominos. Points of entry were shut; arrivals (and, in some cases, departures) were restricted; and flights were grounded. Often, these border closures and restrictions were put in place with limited warning, leaving countless travellers in need of repatriation assistance, many families separated, and thousands of migrants and seafarers stranded. Visa processing, including extensions and renewals, ground to a halt as embassies and consular offices were closed or began operating on a skeletal staff, and refugee resettlement was temporarily suspended.
Since then, a patchwork of fast-changing travel restrictions of various kinds has emerged – from bans on arrivals from specific countries or subnational regions, to visa and flight suspensions. Countries have introduced numerous exemptions to restrictions for certain travellers (such as for their own nationals and family members), and over time, many have shifted from blunt travel bans and border closures to measures that seek to tentatively restart cross-border movements, such as requiring travellers to stay in quarantine after arrival or show proof of a pre-departure COVID-19 test. But this process of opening up has been non-linear. “Travel bubbles” (quarantine-free agreements between countries or cities) have been introduced and then closed; borders have been opened and then snapped shut; exemptions have been expanded and narrowed; and health requirements and quarantine measures have been introduced and adapted. Towards the end of 2020, new waves of travel restrictions associated with the identification of new and highly transmissible variants of the virus, and with rising caseloads in many countries, rekindled debates about the relationship between international mobility and COVID-19.
The International Organization for Migration (IOM) has been tracking travel restrictions and border closures since March 2020, and it has made reports on these measures publicly available on its COVID-19 Mobility Impacts platform since May 2020. This report marks a collaboration between IOM and the Migration Policy Institute (MPI) to collate and analyse these data, presenting a first-of-its-kind look at how the movement of people worldwide was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic over the course of 2020.
In early 2021, optimism has grown about a potential return to normality as several vaccines have been approved and are being administered. This report establishes a benchmark through which to evaluate the hoped-for revival of cross-border mobility that these vaccines and other pharmacological interventions could bring. It begins by reviewing what happened in 2020, aggregating and analysing data on travel restrictions and border closures at both the global and regional level. Next, it turns to the human impact of these curbs on mobility for different groups of travellers and migrants, and across different regions. In the final section, the report considers whether the evidence supports travel restrictions as effective tools for managing pandemics and analyses the main policy levers beginning to replace blanket travel bans and how these may be seeding a new cross-border infrastructure built around public health. The report concludes with a look ahead to major decisions that will need to be made in 2021.
DTM’s Flow Monitoring Registry (FMR) observes and records flows of people on the move at key transit points within Zimbabwe and at its borders. It provides an insight into mobility trends, migration drivers and traveller profiles to inform programming by humanitarian and development partners and by the government. In total, 17 Flow Monitoring Points (FMPs) were active in April 2021, surveying internal flows and cross border movements with South Africa, Zambia, Botswana and Mozambique. Figures are only indicative of existing trends among respondents at the active FMPs since DTM does not have full coverage of cross-border or internal flows. Participation in the assessments is voluntary and anonymous. Over the reporting period, a total of 12,444 movements were observed including 7,188 (58%) outflows and 5,256 (42%) inflows. Most of the outgoing travellers identified as departing reported travelling from Beitbridge and Harare, and going to South Africa via Dite FMP in Beitbridge. Movement flows from and to Zimbabwe are continuously increasing following the relaxation of COVID-19 restrictions from the 1st of March 2021.
Dans le cadre de ses activités de suivi des mouvements de transhumance (TTT), l’Organisation internationale pour les migrations (OIM) en Mauritanie en collaboration avec le Groupement National des Associations Pastorales (GNAP) met en place des activités de comptage des troupeaux et personnes. Pour analyser le niveau de compréhension et de sensibilisation sur le COVID-19, des indicateurs additionnels ont été inclus dans le cadre des activités TTT. Suite à ces questions, les énumérateurs, formés par l’OIM et GNAP, ont sensibilisé les individus interrogés sur la maladie et les moyens de limiter la contamination. Les données présentées sur cette page ont été recueillies lors d’enquêtes conduites dans les régions de Gorgol, Brakna, Trarza, Adrar, Assaba, Guidimagha, Hodh El-Chargui et Hodh El-Gharbi auprès des 2 439 transhumants entre le 17 janvier et le 13 mars 2021.
Au total, 98 pour cent des 2 438 personnes qui ont répondu à cette question ont confirmé avoir déjà reçu des informations sur la façon de se protéger contre le COVID-19. La tendance générale montre que la proportion des personnes ayant reçu ces informations augmente au fil du temps, passant de 97 pour cent en janvier 2021 (semaine 3) à 99 pour cent en mars 2021 (semaine 2).
د بېځایه کېدونکوو د تعقیب سیسټم په افغانستان کې د تحرک د ارزونې بنسټیزې وسیلې کاروي ترڅو له تحرکاتو څخه څارنه وشي او د نفوس په هکله اټکلونه، د جبري بېځایه کېدنو موقعیتونه او جغرافیه وي وېش څرګند شي. سربېره پر دې DTM د بېځایه کېدو مهال، علت، اصلی سیمې، لومړني جمعیتی معلومات، زیانمنتیاوې او د اړتیاوو د لومړیتوبونو څخه څارنه کوي. معلومات د کلیو په کچه کلیدي معلوماتو ورکوونکو سره د ډله ایز بحثونو او مخامخ کتنو له لارې راټولېږي.
د ۲۰۲۰ کال ډسمبر ۳۱ پر بنسټ په ۳۴ ولایاتو کې ۴۰۱ ولسوالی او ۱۲٬۶۰۰ کلي د ۷۲٬۳۰۵ کلیدي معلومات ورکوونکو سره د مرکې له لارې ارزول شوي دي. له ۲۰۱۲ کال څخه د ۲۰۲۰ کال ډسمبر میاشتې پورې ۴٬۱۹۶٬۸۷۸ راستنېدونکي و ۴٬۹۳۷٬۲۷۷ کورني بېځایه شوي چې اوسمهال په کوربه ټولنو کې اوسېږي پېژندل شوي دي.
DTM در افغانستان از ابـزار ارزیـابی بنیـادی تحـرکات اسـتفاده میکنـد تا تحـرکات ردیابی گردیده معلومات در مورد تخمین مـیزان نفوس، موقعیـت و تقسیمات جغرافیایی جمعیت های بیجا شده اجباری، بازگشت کننده و مهاجر آماده گردد. علاوه بر این DTM دلایـل و زمان بیجاشدگی و محل اصـلی بیجاشدگان را بشمول آمار گیری اسـاسی در مـورد جمعیـت، سـطح آسـیب پذیـری و نیازمندی های اولیه آنان را ردیابی مینماید. اطلاعات از طریـق بحـث هـای گروهی اجتماعی بـا معلومـات دهنـدگان کلیـدی، و مشـاهدات مسـتقیم به سطح قریجات جمع آوری میشـود.
طبق ۳۱ دسمبر سال ۲۰۲۰، ۳۴ ولایت، ۴۰۱ ولسوالی و ۱۲٬۶۰۰ قریه از طریق مصاحبه با ۷۲٬۳۰۵ معلومات دهندگان کلیدی ارزیابی گردیده اند. از سال ۲۰۱۲ الی دسمبر ۲۰۲۰ به تعداد ۴٬۱۹۶٬۸۷۸ بازگشت کننده خارج از کشور و ۴٬۹۳۷٬۲۷۷ بیجاشده داخلی که در حال حاضر در جوامع میزبان زندگی میکنند شناسایی گردیده اند.
In Afghanistan, DTM employs the Baseline Mobility Assessment tool, designed to track mobility, determine the population sizes, locations and geographic distribution of forcibly displaced, return and migrant populations, reasons for displacement, places of origin, and times of displacement, as well as basic demographics, vulnerabilities and priority needs. Data is collected at the settlement level, through community focus group discussions with key informants and direct observations.
As of 31 December 2020, 34 provinces, 401 districts and 12,600 settlements have been assessed, including interviews with 72,305 key informants. Between 2012 and December 2020, 4,196,878 returnees and 4,937,277 IDPs currently living in host communities were identified.
In March 2021, a total of 19,450 movements were observed across Ethiopia’s five flow monitoring points (FMPs). Following the steady increase in movements, outgoing movements during March have continued to be significantly higher (77.3%) than incoming movements (22.7%). The percentage of outgoing versus incoming movements have climbed above the proportions observed before the first COVID-19 case was confirmed in Ethiopia. A total of 15,031 outgoing movements were observed of which 6,722 (44.7%) were going towards the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2,359 (15.7%) travelling towards Djibouti, 2,229 (14.8%) were going to Kenya, 846 (5.6%) to Somalia, 708 (4.7%) to South Africa and 611 (4.1%) intended to head to Yemen.
On the other hand, 4,419 incoming movements were observed, of which 2,978 (67.4%) had originated from Sudan, while 722 (16.3%) and 483 (10.9%) came from Djibouti and Kenya respectively. Almost all of these were Ethiopian nationals who were likely returning home. The number of incoming movements into Ethiopia from Sudan has increased since the outbreak of the Northern Ethiopia Crisis from 1,879 inflow movements in November 2020 to 2,022 inflows movements in December, to 2,643 inflow movements in January, to 2,662 inflows in Februay and 2,978 inflows movements in March 2021.