Ukraine Response — Regional Annual Overview Summary — Ukrainian Refugees and TCNs crossing to Ukraine in 2022
Starting on 24 February 2022, the Russian full-scale invasion in Ukraine triggered an unprecedented humanitarian crisis and generated large scale displacement, both within Ukraine and to the neighbouring countries. As of 23 January 2023, 5.4 M persons were internally displaced in Ukraine (IOM). Moreover, by mid-January 2023 nearly 8 M refugees from Ukraine were recorded across Europe (UNHCR). According to available administrative data, more than 17 M border crossings of refugees and Third-Country Nationals (TCNs) were reported from Ukraine into the neighbouring countries since February 2022.1
At the same time, around 5.2 M persons were estimated to be returnees including both from other locations within Ukraine and self-reported from abroad as of 5 December 2022 (IOM). Nearly 9 M cross-border movements were registered from Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and the Republic of Moldova among the neighbouring countries into Ukraine as of the end of January 2023.
To survey the reasons for crossing back to Ukraine, and the intentions and immediate needs of the populations returning or only visiting for short periods, IOM deployed its Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) since April 2022 and interviewed Ukrainians and TCNs in neighbouring countries prior to exiting towards Ukraine.
This report is based on 24,393 valid surveys collected by IOM’s DTM in five countries with adult refugees from Ukraine and TCNs, that were crossing back into the country between 16 April and 31 December 2022: 8,743 in Romania, 7,131 in the Republic of Moldova, 6,807 in Poland, 1,037 in Hungary, 675 in Slovakia.
Total results are weighted as per the number of border crossings from each country of the survey, during the afore-mentioned period. Movements back to Ukraine can be pendular, and do not necessarily indicate intentions to stay as the situation across the country remains volatile and unpredictable.
For a complementary discussion on returnees within Ukraine, after internal or international displacement, please check the latest DTM Ukraine Return Report (January 2023) and the Factsheet Conditions of Return Assessment (February 2023).
Read the Extended version of the Report here.