Ukraine response – Displacement and Cross-Border Movements of TCNs from Ukraine to Neighbouring Countries and in Europe
Since the onset of the war in Ukraine, refugees from Ukraine and Third-Country Nationals1 (TCNs) have been fleeing into neighbouring countries in high numbers. According to UNHCR, over 17 million (17,408,643) border crossings from Ukraine have been registered by national authorities of six neighbouring countries between 24 February 2022 and 10 January 2023. Additionally, over the same period, 7.9 million refugees from Ukraine have been registered across Europe, in total. At the same time, more than 9 million (9,376,677) border crossings to Ukraine were registered from neighbouring countries.
This report focuses on TCNs’ border crossing movements in and out of Ukraine, as well as on their registered presence across European countries and on their profiles, needs and intentions.
Arrival and departure statistics are compiled from a variety of sources, mainly provided by national border authorities of countries neighbouring Ukraine to IOM. Registration and/or presence of TCNs from Ukraine across Europe is sourced from official statistics by national authorities and Eurostat. Data for Belarus does not allow for any trend analysis, data for Hungary was not provided to IOM after 25 April 2022. The information from national authorities is continuously verified and cross-checked to ensure consistency across countries and over time. Nevertheless, readers should be aware of the possible break in time series and that – as the war prolongs over an extended period – the same individual can cross the border from/to Ukraine multiple times for various reasons. Hence, total values for the entire period refer to border crossings rather than individuals.
The TCNs profile in terms of socio-demographic characteristics, main needs upon displacement and intentions is based on IOM’s Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) survey data collected in 2022 in 12 European countries.