The key finding of this report is that push and pull factors, as well as the challenges Afghan potential migrants face daily at personal, household and community levels, revolve around a lack of livelihood options and insecurity. The lack of livelihood options and insecurity are mutually reinforcing – years of prolonged conflict has led to a lack of overall economic development and vice versa. The division of potential migrants along categories of, on the one hand, those fleeing insecurity, persecution and violence, and on the other, those migrating for economic reasons, cannot easily be maintained – both for individual cases, as well as a categorisation for those looking to leave Afghanistan. These insights have been consistent with previous research undertaken by DTM and others on the topic, mostly notably the CFMS (IOM (d), 2019; IOM (e), 2019; EASO, 2016). More research is needed to analyse different and changing migration routes, motivations, capabilities, financing, networks, regulatory frameworks and the role of smuggling networks and diaspora groups on the determinants of Afghan migration to Europe, both in countries of origin, transit and destination and for different segments of Afghan migrants – which is beyond the scope of the current research.