This report is a joint IOM-UNHCR report depicting Afghan returns from the neighbouring Islamic Republics of Iran and Pakistan and challenges faced by returning Afghans. Over 610,000 Afghans returned from the Islamic Republics of Iran and Pakistan in 2017. This includes 60,000 registered refugees that returned from Pakistan, 100,000 undocumented returnees from Pakistan, and over 450,000 undocumented returnees from the Islamic Republic of Iran. Following the arrival of more than 1 million documented and undocumented Afghan returnees that returned in 2016, the existing capacity to absorb new arrivals in country is under significant strain and negative coping mechanisms such as remigration are increasingly prevalent. Returns are taking place against a backdrop of increased internal displacement and high civilian casualties due to persisting instability in several regions of Afghanistan. During 2017, over 500,000 individuals were newly displaced, while over 674,000 individuals were displaced in 2016. The continuing insecurity and limited capacity to absorb returning Afghans and those displaced within Afghanistan could lead to secondary displacement and onward movement.