Baseline Assessment

Costa Rica - Panama: Flow monitoring of people in mobility situations through the Americas #5 (April, 2022)

In the framework of the COVID-19 emergency, since March 19, 2020, the Government of Costa Rica has kept its land border with Panama closed for the Controlled Flow Binational Operation, which sought an orderly and safe migration of migrants moving through the Americas.

From August 2021 to March 2022, the Government of Panama reports the entry into Panama of 102,122 migrants: Haiti (56%), Cuba (11%), Brazil (7%), Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (6%), Chile (6%) among other countries in South America, Africa and Asia (13%).

In Costa Rica, during 2022, a steady increase in the number of migrants of this migration flow has been identified (as of April 2022 it has increased by 30% compared to December 2021, when the monitoring of flows in Costa Rica began). According to data from the General Directorate of Migration and Aliens (DGME), during May 2021 and February 2022, 5,426 rejections were reported in Paso Canoas.

In Costa Rica, many vulnerabilities are perceived: pregnant women, children under five years of age, emotional exhaustion caused by stress, anguish and frustration. In addition, the main needs detected are associated with access to food, shelter, medical assistance and safety during their migration journey.

Costa Rica - Panamá: Monitoreo de flujos de personas en situación de movilidad por las Américas #5 (Abril, 2022)

En el marco de la emergencia por la COVID-19, desde el 19 de marzo del 2020, el Gobierno de Costa Rica mantiene cerrada su frontera terrestre con Panamá para la Operación Binacional Flujo Controlado, la cual procuraba una migración ordenada y segura de personas migrantes en situación de movilidad por América.

Desde agosto de 2021 hasta marzo de 2022, el Gobierno de Panamá reporta el ingreso a Panamá de 102.122 personas migrantes: Haití (56%), Cuba (11%), Brasil (7%), República Bolivariana de Venezuela (6%), Chile (6%), entre otros países del Sur de América, África y Asia (13%).

En Costa Rica, durante el 2022, se ha identificado un aumento constante en la cantidad de personas migrantes de este flujo migratorio (a abril de 2022 ha aumentado en un 30% en comparación con diciembre, 2021, cuando inició el monitoreo de flujos en Costa Rica). Además, de acuerdo con datos de la Dirección General de Migración y Extranjería (DGME), durante mayo de 2021 y febrero de 2022 se han realizaron 5.426 rechazos en Paso Canoas.

En Costa Rica se perciben muchas vulnerabilidades: mujeres embarazadas, niños y niñas menores de cinco años, desgaste emocional ocasionado por estrés, angustia y frustración. Además, las principales necesidades detectadas se asocian con el acceso a alimento, alojamiento, asistencia médica y seguridad en su trayecto. ​

Mali — Crise Humanitaire au Nord et au Centre - Rapport sur les Mouvements de Populations (Avril 2022)

Au cours des quatre premiers mois de l’année 2022, dans un contexte marqué par l’insécurité et la fermeture des frontières terrestres et aériennes entre le Mali et les pays de la Communauté économique des Etats de l’Afrique de l’Ouest (CEDEAO), des combats et attaques sporadiques se sont poursuivis dans plusieurs localités du pays occasionnant des déplacements internes de populations civiles dans le Nord et dans le Centre du pays. Le caractère violent des conflits a provoqué d’importants déplacements de populations à l’intérieur du territoire malien et dans les communes frontalières entre le Burkina Faso et le Niger, avec des méthodes de mouvements très complexes à suivre. Des déplacements de courte durée ont continué à être signalés dans différentes régions du pays. L’amélioration significative des conditions de sécurité dans certaines localités a permis à de nombreuses personnes déplacées internes (PDI), vivant toujours dans des conditions extrêmes à regagner leurs foyers au Centre et au Nord du pays, mais de nombreux obstacles persistent, les empêchant de trouver des solutions durables à leur déplacement.

Suite aux violences constatées dans certaines localités des Régions de Ménaka, Tombouctou, Gao, Mopti et Ségou, le nombre de PDI est en effet passé de 350 110 de décembre 2021 à 370 548 personnes en avril 2022. Cependant, en avril, dans la région de Ségou, il est noté une baisse considérable (environ 37%) du nombre total de PDI suite à des retours observés dans les zones d’origine. L’accès à la terre cultivable et la sécurisation de certaines localités d’origine notamment dans le cercle de Niono, ont été les principales raisons de retours évoquées par certains ménages déplacés dans la région de Ségou.

Contact

DTM Mali, DTMMali@iom.int

Монгол Улс - Өмнөговь аймагт Хүн амын хөдөлгөөнийг тандаx туршилтын судалгаа #1 (Хоёрдугаар сар 2022)

ОУШХБ-ын өмнөх судалгаануудаар газрын доройтол, уур амьсгалын өөрчлөлт зэрэг асуудлууд нь Монголын уламжлалт амьдралын хэв маягийг өөрчилж байгааг тогтоожээ. Ган зудын давтамж нэмэгдэж, ажлын байр хомс, амьдрах орчин нөхцөл шаардлага хангахгүй, хөдөөгийн хүн ам малаас хэт хараат болсон зэрэг нь хөдөөгийн хүн амын амьжиргааг залгуулах боломжийг өдрөөс өдөрт бууруулсаар байна. Үүний зэрэгцээ энэ байдал нь хот суурин газар болон бусад аймгийн төв рүү чиглэсэн шилжилт хөдөлгөөнийг нэмэгдүүлэх хүчин зүйл болсоор байна. Эдгээр шинээр гарч ирж буй шилжилт хөдөлгөөний (хүн амын хөдөлгөөн) хэв маяг нь тооллогын, бүртгэлийн мэдээлэл болон Монгол Улсын хэмжээнд амьдарч буй хүмүүсийн бодит тоон мэдээлэл хооронд ихээхэн зөрүү үүсгэсээр байна. Энэхүү туршилтын судалгаагаар ҮСХ болон ОУШХБ нь хамтран Өмнөговь, болон Дундговь аймгуудад багийн байршил дээрх хүн амын бодит тоог тандах зорилгоор Хүн амын хөдөлгөөнийг тандах матрицын “Хөдөлгөөний тандалт” – MT (Mobility Tracking) аргачлалыг ашиглахыг зорьсон юм.

Contact

vlutenco@iom.int

Mongolia – Monitoring mobility in Umnugovi Aimag #1 (February 2022)

Previous IOM studies have found that a combination of complex effects, including land degradation and climate change, are altering traditional livelihood patterns in Mongolia. In a context of increased frequency of droughts and dzuds, the lack of job opportunities, inadequate living conditions, and the dependency of the rural population on livestocks have reduced the rural population's ability to earn a living. At the same time, this situation increased migration to urban areas and other aimags in unprecedented and unexplored ways. These emerging migration patterns created a large discrepancy between census data, registration data, and actual number of people living in the various baghs in Mongolia. With this study, DTM and National Statistics Office (NSO) intend to use the Mobility Tracking (MT) methodology of the DTM toolbox to track a more accurate number of people living in the various baghs in Umnugovi aimags.

Contact

vlutenco@iom.int

Iraq - Displacement Index Methodological Overview

CONTEXT With the end of the conflict with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), protracted displacement has come to characterize the post-conflict environment in Iraq. Around 1.2 million people remain internally displaced, nearly all of whom fled their areas of origin more than three years ago. In light of the above, it is essential to advance durable solutions to displacement in Iraq through improving the living conditions that will enable internally displaced persons (IDPs) to voluntarily take the first steps towards return, local integration or settlement in new locations.

DATA COLLECTION APPROACH

The Displacement Index (DI) is a tool designed to measure and monitor the living conditions of IDPs. Data collection for the DI take place across 18 governorates, 94 districts and around 2,000 locations of displacement in Iraq. The unit of the analysis is the location, which can be a town, village or neighbourhood in a city. Data is collected through IOM’s Rapid Assessment and Response Teams (RARTs), composed of over 80 staff members deployed across Iraq (20% of enumerators are female). IOM’s RARTs collect data through structured interviews with KIs using a large, well-established network of over 2,000 KIs (5% are female) that includes community leaders, mukhtars, local authorities and security forces.

Contact

DTM Iraq, IraqDTM@iom.int

Iraq — Return Index: Returns in Iraq: 2021 Overview - December 2020 (round 11) to December 2021 (round 14)

The Return Index is a tool designed to measure the severity of condi- tions in locations of return. The Return Index is based on 16 indicators divided into two scales: Scale 1, on livelihoods and basic services, and Scale 2, centered around social cohesion and safety perceptions. A regression model is used to assess the impact of each of the indica- tors in facilitating or preventing returns. The index ranges from 0 (all essential conditions for return are met) to 100 (no essential condi- tions for return are met). Higher scores denote more severe living conditions for returnees. The scores of the severity index are grouped into three categories: low, medium and high (which also includes very high). Refer to the “Methodological Overview” for more details on the methodology.

The Returns in Iraq: 2021 Overview provides an analysis of returns across the country. The first section of this report presents an overview of returns in 2021. The second considers conditions for returnees across all governorates of return at the end of 2021 and examines the relationship between the rate of return and the severity of those conditions. The third section outlines the areas of no return and newly assessed locations recorded by IOM’s Rapid Assessment and Response Teams (RARTs), and the returnee population living in critical shelters. The final section presents a more granular analysis of the factors driving severity in subdistricts of return which are designated as ‘hotspots’, and how these factors changed between December 2020 and December 2021.

Iraq — Return Index: briefing #3 Re-displaced: An exploration of displacement after attempted return in Iraq (February 2020)

Nearly two years after the official end of the conflict with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), more than 4.5 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) have returned to their places of origin across eight governorates in Iraq. The Return Index measures the severity of physical and social conditions in the locations to which they are returning. This third Thematic Series report focuses on the dynamics and drivers of re-displacement, a type of secondary displacement referring specifically to “IDPs who return to their areas of origin but are unable to achieve sustainable solutions and are consequently displaced again to their first place of displacement or to a new location of displacement.” Despite some gradual improvements of conditions in return areas in Iraq, if local conditions in origin remain severe for a long period of time or undergo a sudden deterioration, returns may not be sustainable. It is in these contexts that returnee families may face pressures to leave again – in other words, they may re-displace. This report explores which push factors play a role, and to what degree, in making a location more likely to have families re-displacing, through correlating the data on locations with secondary displacement with Return Index indicators on the locations’ physical and social conditions.

Iraq — Return Index: Ninewa Governorate (April 2020)

The Return Index Governorate Profiling provides singular analysis and insights on returns at the governorate level, with a comparison of figures and severity of living conditions over the course of 2019.

This report focuses on return dynamics in Ninewa Governorate, the governorate with the highest number of returnees. The report features an evaluation of conditions of return across the governorate at the end of 2019, provides insights on the mass arrivals which took place in September 2019 due to camp closures, and analyses the drivers of severe conditions across geographical hotspots that received an influx of new arrivals during that period.

KEY FINDINGS

• Ninewa Governorate hosts 1.77 million returnees out of the 4.60 million returnees in Iraq (38% of the total), making it the governorate with the highest number of returnees. Ten per cent of these returnees are currently living in locations ranked as having high severity conditions, while 32 per cent are living in medium severity locations and 58 per cent in low severity locations.

• While the absolute number of returnees living in high severity locations decreased between January and August 2019, in the last four months of 2019 the trend reversed and the number began increasing again. By December 2019, the number stood at about 174,000 individuals.

• The districts of Sinjar and Telafar host the largest number of individuals who have returned to high severity conditions. In Sinjar in particular, nearly all locations with returns are categorized as high severity – no returnee was found to be living in low severity conditions.

• A little over 52,000 returnees are living in critical shelters (3% of Ninewa’s returnee population), spread across 255 locations.
The majority of these returnees are concentrated in villages around the urban centre of Mosul district.

• Given the large presence of non-camp IDPs, one out of every four locations in Ninewa Governorate hosts both IDPs and returnees, increasing the pressure on the provision of basic needs and recovery resources. Multiple locations in Mosul and Sinjar, for instance, are currently hosting more IDPs than returnees.

• Between September and December 2019, DTM tracked almost 49,000 individuals who left camps for non-camp settings in Ninewa Governorate due to camp closures. Most of them (85%) returned to their districts of origin, while the remaining 15 per cent moved to new locations of displacement, thus becoming non-camp IDPs. The districts of Al-Ba’aj and Hatra host two thirds of these new arrivals.

• A little more than 40 per cent of the camp departures to non-camp locations in Ninewa Governorate have currently settled in locations classified as high severity. This influx points to a likely critical situation for these newly arrived households, from displacement camps to relatively deprived areas.