The Central African Republic, which has experienced continuous volatility for the past two decades, has been riddled by a crisis which ignited in 2012 with a violent takeover of power and has developed into a complex protracted state of permanent insecurity and fragility which has spilled over into neighbouring countries. The crisis has led to the death of an estimated 506 people in 2022 (as of 30 April) and triggered significant displacement of populations in the seven affected countries. The crisis is characterized by power struggles amongst elites, the absence of state institutions and public investment, religious and ethnic tensions and disputes for the control of key resources.
As of 31 July 2022, 3,314,671 individuals were displaced, including 610,265 Internally Displaced Persons (18% of the displaced population), 1,588,289 Returnees (former IDPs) (48%), 377,297 Returnees from abroad (11%) and 738,820 Refugees in neighbouring countries (22%). In the Central African Republic, the largest displaced population consists of Former IDP Returnees (62%), while IDPs represent 24 per cent of the displaced population present in the country and Returnees from abroad represent 15 per cent of in-country displaced people. Refugees from the Central African Republic are primarily hosted by Cameroon (347,575 individuals, or 47% of refugees), the Democratic Republic of the Congo (207,118 individuals, or 28% of refugees) and Chad (124,488 individuals, or 17% of refugees).