In light of the outbreak of COVID-19 in Thailand, migrants and non-Thai populations, irrespective of their legal status, face a new set of challenges and vulnerabilities. The stringent movement restrictions and temporary disruption of many income-generating activities pose a significant burden on migrants and non-Thai populations employed in both the formal and informal sectors. With limited or no access to technology, limited capacity to cope and adapt, little or no savings, inadequate access to social services, and uncertainty about their legal status and potential to access healthcare services, tens of thousands of migrants and non-nationals left Thailand in the first weeks of the pandemic. However, the extent to which these challenges and vulnerabilities were affecting migrant communities and non-Thai nationals who opted to remain in Thailand, or had no choice but to remain in Thailand, was unknown. It was also unclear whether migrant communities and non-nationals were receiving sufficient information about COVID-19 or had access to the resources which would allow them to maintain the hygiene and sanitation standards required for effective protection. To fill this data gap and inform possible responses, IOM initiated a data collection exercise to collect information on the COVID-19 knowledge and related vulnerabilities of non-Thai populations in Thailand.