The Flow Monitoring Surveys (FMS) are part of the IOM’s Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) activities in the Mediterranean region, which started in October 2015 and are conducted within the framework of IOM’s research on populations on the move through the Mediterranean and Western Balkan Routes to Europe. Surveys are analyzed to provide information on profiles, transit routes, and vulnerabilities of the respondents. In 2019, data collection took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Italy, North Macedonia, and Spain. There were 722 respondents from Pakistan, representing 25 per cent of the total sample (2,841).
The purpose of Flow Monitoring (FM) as a component of IOM’s DTM is to improve our understanding of profiles, migration routes and migration drivers of populations on the move by collecting data on population movements at points strategically selected inside a country, a region or across different regions. FM also contributes to expanding relevant actors’ awareness of immediate and medium term needs of these populations, informing humanitarian and resilience programs as well as possible reintegration and development strategies in the communities of origin or other areas. Migrants on the move are interviewed by IOM field teams; the surveys collect information on migrants’ profiles, including age, sex, areas of origin, levels of education and employment status before migration, key transit points on their route, cost of the journey, reasons for moving and intentions.
Pakistan was the second most registered nationality among arrivals by sea to Italy in 2019 and one of the most frequently registered countries of origin for those transiting through the Western Balkan countries in the same year according to available data from national authorities. In 2019, 2,585 Pakistani nationals arrived by land or sea in Europe by entering Italy, Malta, Greece or Cyprus. The highest share of Pakistani nationals was registered in Italy (46% of the total). Additionally, 23,681 apprehensions of Pakistani nationals were registered while transiting through the Western Balkan countries during the same year. Among countries in the region, the largest share of Pakistani nationals was registered in Bosnia and Herzegovina (41% of the total)1 . In the same year, IOM’s data collection of Flow Monitoring Surveys (FMS) included 722 interviews with Pakistani nationals (25% of the total sample), which took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina (150), Italy (534) and North Macedonia (38). Pakistani nationals were not explicitly excluded from data collection in Spain. However, due to the small number arriving by land or sea, they were not interviewed in the country. This report will present the findings regarding the profiles, migration routes, and vulnerabilities of Pakistani nationals that were interviewed in 2019 by IOM’s DTM in Europe