This desk review report is the output of the first phase of IOM’s project implementation on data collection to enable a better understanding of migration flows from Afghanistan and Pakistan towards Europe. The number of arrivals by sea and land to Europe for 2015 exceeded one million on the 20th December, with the total number registered by the relevant national authorities standing at 1,046,599 according to IOM’s DTM1 system in coordination with relevant IOM missions and national authority partners. Of these, 20.2 percent were Afghans whilst 2.7 percent were Pakistani nationals. In data from January to the end of May 2016, the cumulative total of 220,796 arrivals included 19.5 percent Afghan and 3 percent Pakistani nationals. The sharp increase in violence in Afghanistan has intensified the flow of Afghan (forced) migrants during the past year.